Culture and Spirituality
According to Martsolf (1997), there are 3 ways that spirituality
and culture can be related:
- Spirituality can be defined completely by the individual's
- Spirituality can be individually defined by personal
experiences unrelated to the culture
- Spirituality can be defined by culture and personal
experiences but are quite different from the cultural norms.
Spiritual assessment must, therefore, include assessment of the
client's culture, utilization of complementary and spiritual
practices common to that culture, preferences for spiritual
interventions, and preferred spiritual care providers.
Kirkwood, N. A. (1993). A hospital handbook on
multiculturalism and religion: Practical guidelines for health care
workers. Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse Publishing.
Martsolf, D. (1997). Cultural aspects of spirituality in cancer
care. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 13,
Taylor, E. J., (2002). Spiritual care: Nursing theory,
research, and practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Halstead, M. (2005)